Breast cancer: Symptoms causes and treatment Us

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Breast cancer: Symptoms, causes, and treatment Us The breast is made up sections called lobes. Each lobe is divided into simpler sections named, lobules. The lobules contain the glands responsible for producing milk during lactation.Mammography Milk flows from the lobule to the nipple through tubes called ducts. The space between the lobules and the ducts is full of fat and fibrous tissue. In addition, the breasts have lymphatic vessels that go to small round organs, the lymph

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nodes, which serve as protection, trap bacteria, tumor cells, and other harmful substances(the lymph vessels and lymph nodes are present throughout the body). Lymphatic drainage from the breasts occurs primarily to the axillary lymph nodes.


Breast cancer consists of the accelerated and uncontrolled proliferation of cells of the glandular epithelium. They are cells that have greatly increased their reproductive capacity. Breast cancer cells can spread through the blood or lymph vessels and reach other parts of the body. There they can adhere to tissues and grow to metastasize. Breast cancer can appear in women and men, but more than 99% of cases occur in women.

Hereditary breast cancer

Hereditary cancer is cancer that originates from some genetic mutation. An estimated 5-10% of breast cancers are inherited. 20-25% of the mutations responsible for hereditary breast cancers occur in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes. In hereditary breast cancer, there are other related genes that are being investigated, such as PALB2, p53, CDH1, ATM,
and CHEK2. The probability of a woman carrying the BRCA 1 or 2 mutation developing breast cancer is around 70% at 70 years of age.

Molecular classification of breast cancer

With the development of more sophisticated techniques, the genes of each breast cancer can be analyzed. These techniques have led to a more accurate classification of breast cancer that better correlates with the risk of disease relapse. The molecular Car accident lawyer free consultationclassification establishes four types of breast cancer: Luminal A, luminal B, HER 2 and basal. Luminal tumors have positive hormone receptors, HER2 expression of HER2 and basal like or triple negative do not express hormonal receptors or HER2. The Luminal A subtype is the one with the best prognosis and the baseline like the one with the worst prognosis.

Breast cancer: Symptoms causes and treatment Us

Breast cancer: Symptoms causes and treatment Us

Early detection and screening

Breast cancer constitutes an important health problem in Spain, both for its high incidence and mortality and for its physical, psychological and economic repercussions on the population. Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, its prognosis continues to depend mainly on the extent of the disease at the time of detection. Hence, getting an early
diagnosis is still the best way to improve your chances of healing. Mammography has been credited as the most effective screening test. Mammography screening programs achieve a decrease in mortality from breast cancer. Currently all the
Spanish Autonomous Communities have population screening programs for breast cancer.


A palpable nodule in the breast is the most frequent sign for which it is consulted, generally not painful, although retraction of the nipple or alterations in the skin of the breast is also frequent. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should consult your gynecologist or surgeon for evaluation and start a more in-depth study if you consider it appropriate. Breast cancer: Symptoms causes and treatment Us


When there is a suspicion of breast cancer either by physical examination (both by thepatient and by a doctor) or by a routine mammogram, a study is started to confirm or rule out that suspicion. Imaging tests will guide the diagnosis, but the diagnosis of certainty of breast cancer always requires confirmation with a biopsy. Imaging tests that study the breast:

Mammograms: These are X-ray images that detect abnormal areas in the breast. They are not 100% reliable, so they can give suspicious images that are not ultimately malignant (false positives) or fail to diagnose a malignant tumor (false negatives).

Ultrasound: A technique that uses ultrasound to produce an image and that can distinguish cystic lesions (fluid-filled, usually non-tumor) from solid (more suspicious) lesions. Many times, this technique complements mammography. Ultrasound can also assess the status of the axillary nodes that are the first site of spread of breast cancer.

Nuclear magnetic resonance: NMR is a radiological exploration that uses the action of an electromagnetic field to obtain images. It may be necessary in women with dense breast tissue, women with a BRCA gene mutation, or women wearing silicone prostheses. If breast cancer is suspected, the next step is to take a tissue sample from it to analyze it.

Tests that will assess whether there is spread of the disease to other organs

After confirmation of the diagnosis of breast cancer with biopsy, other radiological tests are performed to ensure that there are no metastases in other organs. These scans are usually recommended for stages II or higher. In patients with small tumors and negative nodes (stage I) these studies are not necessary.

Chest x-ray: This is usually done before surgery and is used to rule out lung involvement from the tumor.

Abdominal ultrasound: image of the abdomen, obtained using ultrasound. It is used to assess the liver and other abdominal structures.

Bone scan: is a test that detects areas of increase or decrease in bone metabolism and is used, among other things, to assess whether the tumor has spread to the bones. Computerized axial tomography (CAT). It is another radiological technique that is used to rule out distant involvement of the breast (nodes, liver, lungs, bone).


As in other tumors, all breast cancer subtypes are classified into stages according to the extent of the disease. Stage I breast cancer is early stage breast cancer and stage IV is advanced breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. The TNM classification system is based on the size of the tumor (T) and its extension to the regional lymph nodes (N) or to other parts of the body (M). The stage is generally not known until after surgery in which the tumor is removed and the condition of the axillary nodes is analyzed.Breast cancer: Symptoms causes and treatment Us


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